Hello guys welcome today article..we gonna discuss about the linux system hirarchy..which is much different than the window hirarchy..and it's important to learn..actually this article is continue of previous one...

The file system layout on our Linux system is much like that found on other Unix-like systems. The design is actually specified in a published standard called the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. Not all Linux distributions conform to the standard exactly but
most come pretty close.

Next, we are going to wander around the file system ourselves to see what makes our Linux system tick. This will give you a chance to practice your navigation skills. One of
the things we will discover is that many of the interesting files are in plain human-readable
text. As we go about our tour, try the following:

1. cd into a given directory
2. List the directory contents with ls -l
3. If you see an interesting file, determine its contents with file
4. If it looks like it might be text, try viewing it with less

                     Remember the copy and paste trick! 
If you are using a mouse, you can double click on a filename to copy it and middle click to paste it into commands.

so let's explore the system hirarchy..from initial point..


The root directory. Where everything begins.


 Contains binaries (programs) that must be present for                              the system to boot and run.


 Contains the Linux kernel, initial RAM disk image (for
drivers needed at boot time), and the boot loader.

Interesting files:
         ● /boot/grub/grub.conf or menu.lst, which
       are used to configure the boot loader.

         ● /boot/vmlinuz, the Linux kernel
      /dev This is a special directory which contains device nodes.

“Everything is a file” also applies to devices. Here is where
the kernel maintains a list of all the devices it understands.


 The /etc directory contains all of the system-wide
configuration files. It also contains a collection of shell
scripts which start each of the system services at boot time.
Everything in this directory should be readable text.
Interesting files: While everything in /etc is interesting,

here are some of my all-time favorites:

       ● /etc/crontab, a file that defines when
      automated jobs will run.

      ● /etc/fstab, a table of storage devices and their
      associated mount points.

      ● /etc/passwd, a list of the user accounts.


In normal configurations, each user is given a directory in
/home. Ordinary users can only write files in their home
directories. This limitation protects the system from errant
user activity.


 Contains shared library files used by the core system
programs. These are similar to DLLs in Windows.


Each formatted partition or device using a Linux file system,
such as ext3, will have this directory. It is used in the case of
a partial recovery from a file system corruption event.
Unless something really bad has happened to your system,
this directory will remain empty.


On modern Linux systems the /media directory will
contain the mount points for removable media such as USB
drives, CD-ROMs, etc. that are mounted automatically at


On older Linux systems, the /mnt directory contains mount
points for removable devices that have been mounted


The /opt directory is used to install “optional” software.
This is mainly used to hold commercial software products
that may be installed on your system.


The /proc directory is special. It's not a real file system in
the sense of files stored on your hard drive. Rather, it is a
virtual file system maintained by the Linux kernel. The
“files” it contains are peepholes into the kernel itself. The
files are readable and will give you a picture of how the
kernel sees your computer.


This is the home directory for the root account.


This directory contains “system” binaries. These are
programs that perform vital system tasks that are generally
reserved for the superuser.


The /tmp directory is intended for storage of temporary,
transient files created by various programs. Some
configurations cause this directory to be emptied each time
the system is rebooted.

14 ./usr 

The /usr directory tree is likely the largest one on a Linux
system. It contains all the programs and support files used
by regular users.


/usr/bin contains the executable programs installed by
your Linux distribution. It is not uncommon for this
directory to hold thousands of programs.


The shared libraries for the programs in /usr/bin.


The /usr/local tree is where programs that are not
included with your distribution but are intended for systemwide
use are installed. Programs compiled from source code
are normally installed in /usr/local/bin. On a newly
installed Linux system, this tree exists, but it will be empty
until the system administrator puts something in it.


Contains more system administration programs.


/usr/share contains all the shared data used by
programs in /usr/bin. This includes things like default
configuration files, icons, screen backgrounds, sound files,


 Most packages installed on the system will include some
kind of documentation. In /usr/share/doc, we will find
documentation files organized by package.
or we can say that it is the manual of all the commands as well softwares install on this through this you can learn a lot..using comman 'less' or 'nano'(text editor) or other texxt editore like as 'leafpad' or 'gedit'..


 With the exception of /tmp and /home, the directories we
have looked at so far remain relatively static, that is, their
contents don't change. The /var directory tree is where
data that is likely to change is stored. Various databases,
spool files, user mail, etc. are located here.


contains log files, records of various system
activity. These are very important and should be monitored
from time to time. The most useful one is /var/log/messages

that's it is pretty straight forward ...but as much possible i explain it in..but if you still have query please feel free to ask or comment below..

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until next article on commanding..i hope it will be soon..this is..

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