LINUX TERMINAL-COMMAND-I-INTRODUCTION

hey guys from today we start learning the command prompt step by step...
for this i prefare an linux commanding book...from where i extracted some portion .i hope this will be very useful for the beginners as well learners..for this just stick with me...and like my facebook page "HACKER-HEAVEN"

off course if you are my countinous reader of my blog ..you know well that my english is poor..i am improving my self..but i hope you will get the thing what i wanna teach you..so without wasting time let's start learning ....
  •  What Is The Shell?




When we speak of the command line, we are really referring to the shell. The shell is a program that takes keyboard commands and passes them to the operating system to carry out. Almost all Linux distributions supply a shell program from the GNU Project called
bash. The name “bash” is an acronym for “Bourne Again SHell”, a reference to the fact bash is an enhanced replacement for sh, the original Unix shell program written by Steve Bourne.



                         Terminal Emulators

When using a graphical user interface, we need another program called a terminal emulator to interact with the shell. If we look through our desktop menus, we will probably find one. KDE uses konsole and GNOME uses gnome-terminal, though it's likely
called simply “terminal” on our menu. There are a number of other terminal emulators available for Linux, but they all basically do the same thing; give us access to the shell.
You will probably develop a preference for one or another based on the number of bells and whistles it has.

in terminal what is meaning of

username@machinename,

If the last character of the prompt is a pound sign (“#”) rather than a dollar sign $, the terminal session has superuser privileges.
like in given screenshot 
username :ubuntu
machine name : ubuntu
and it shown dollar sign it's mean it is not an super user

         Command History

If we press the up-arrow key, we will see that the previous command “kaekfjaeifj” reap-pears after the prompt. This is called command history. Most Linux distributions remember the last 500 commands by default. Press the down-arrow key and the previous command disappears.

or you can just type command: history


  copy paste concept in the gnome terminal


If you highlight some text by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over it (or double clicking on a word), it is copied into a buffer
maintained by X. Pressing the middle mouse button will cause the text to be pasted at the cursor location. Try it.

Note: Don't be tempted to use Ctrl-c and Ctrl-v to perform copy and paste inside a terminal window. They don't work. These control codes have different meanings to the shell and were assigned many years before Microsoft Windows.

but another shortcut is 
Ctrl+Shift+c :copy
Ctrl+Shift+v :paste
                                  
              Try Some Simple Commands

before we start testing one thing remeber that terminal is       case senstive.

1. The first one is date. This command displays the current time and date.

command : date


2.A related command is cal which, by default, displays a calendar of the current month.

command : cal



3. To see the current amount of free space on your disk drives, enter df:

command : df

4.Likewise, to display the amount of free memory, enter the free command.

command : free

5. to clear the terminal screen. actually this command not delete the previous one exit..it just scroll your terminal and give an fresh screen.
command :clear

Ending A Terminal Session We can end a terminal session by either closing the terminal emulator window, or by en-
tering the exit command at the shell prompt:
 exit command :exit

                          The Console Behind The Curtain

actually here 90% command is fully work in linux distribution like ubuntu ,fedora etc.

Even if we have no terminal emulator running, several terminal sessions continue to run behind the graphical desktop. Called virtual terminals or virtual consoles, these sessions can be accessed on most Linux distributions by pressing                Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6. When a session is accessed, it presents a login
prompt into which we can enter our username and password. To switch from one virtual console to another, press Alt and F1-F6. To return to the graphical desktop, press Alt-F7.

READ MY NEXT ARTCLE ON COMMANDING..



watch the video tutorial for this..sorry their is no audio..nut i hope you will get what i am trying to taught you...
      
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